She led armies several times in her life and was a leader of the Second Crusade. Their daughters were declared legitimate, custody was awarded to Louis, and Eleanor's lands were restored to her. Lycée Aliénor d’Aquitaine. "[27] One source claimed that the queen sent her younger sons to France "to join with him against their father the king. [25] Amy Kelly, in her article, "Eleanor of Aquitaine and Her Courts of Love," gives a very plausible description of the origins of the rules of Eleanor's court: "In the Poitevin code, man is the property, the very thing of woman; whereas a precisely contrary state of things existed in the adjacent realms of the two kings from whom the reigning duchess of Aquitaine was estranged. Eleanor has featured in a number of screen versions of the Ivanhoe and Robin Hood stories. Her half-brother Joscelin was acknowledged by William X as a son, but not as his heir. In addition, having been close to him in their youth, she now showed what was considered to be "excessive affection" towards her uncle. Thus, her holdings would not be merged with France until the next generation. Aliénor d’Aquitaine est née en 1123 à Poitiers. Fille de Guillaume X, duc d'Aquitaine. Dans un parc arboré de Jaunay-Marigny, aux portes du Futuroscope, le Domaine Aliénor-d’Aquitaine propose deux bâtiments pour différents usages. Over the next 13 years, she bore eight children: five sons, three of whom became kings; and three daughters. John instructed his mother to travel to Castile to select one of the princesses. The king was madly in love with his beautiful and worldly bride, however, and granted her every whim, even though her behaviour baffled and vexed him. Sometime between the end of March and the beginning of May, Eleanor left Poitiers, but was arrested and sent to the king at Rouen. One of Louis's avowed Crusade goals was to journey in pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and he stated his intention to continue. PRONOTE Page d'accueil - Lycée Aliénor d'Aquitaine - POITIERS CEDEX (086) - gestion des notes, absences, punitions, cahier de textes pour les établissements scolaires. She has also been introduced in The Royal Diaries series in the book "Crown Jewel of Aquitaine" by Kristiana Gregory. When war broke out between John and Philip, Eleanor declared her support for John and set out from Fontevraud to her capital Poitiers to prevent her grandson Arthur I, Duke of Brittany, posthumous son of Eleanor's son Geoffrey and John's rival for the English throne, from taking control. As the heir of the House of Poitiers, rulers in southwestern France, she was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in western Europe during the High Middle Ages. [3] She also learned domestic skills such as household management and the needle arts of embroidery, needlepoint, sewing, spinning, and weaving. Soon afterwards, Eleanor sought an annulment of her marriage,[1] but her request was rejected by Pope Eugene III. BTS SIO Aliénor d'Aquitaine - Poitiers. In autumn 1145, Pope Eugene III requested that Louis lead a Crusade to the Middle East to rescue the Frankish states there from disaster. Jean Plaidy's novel The Courts of Love, fifth in the 'Queens of England' series, is a fictionalised autobiography of Eleanor of Aquitaine. Home, however, was not easily reached. In 1137 Duke William X left Poitiers for Bordeaux and took his daughters with him. L'union était mal assortie, la légèreté et la sensualité d'Aliénor s'accordant mal avec [7] Eleanor came to learn arithmetic, the constellations, and history. Lycée Aliénor d'Aquitaine Poitiers, 86, Vienne - : informations détaillées et formations proposées par cet établissement (Lycée) As queen dowager, Eleanor acted as regent while Richard went on the Third Crusade. It was decided that he would escort the queen and princess north. The notion that she had another half-brother, William, has been discredited. He claims that Eleanor, her daughter Marie, Ermengarde, Viscountess of Narbonne, and Isabelle of Flanders would sit and listen to the quarrels of lovers and act as a jury to the questions of the court that revolved around acts of romantic love. Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122 – 1 April 1204) (French: Aliénor d'Aquitaine) was queen consort of France (1137–1152) and England (1154–1189) and duchess of Aquitaine in her own right (1137–1204). She left for the Second Crusade from Vézelay, the rumoured location of Mary Magdalene's grave, in June 1147. She stayed in Normandy for six months. In response, Bernard became more kindly towards her: "My child, seek those things which make for peace. Theobald had also offended Louis by siding with the Pope in the dispute over Bourges. Also Norah Lofts wrote a fictionalized biography of her, entitled is various editions Queen in Waiting or Eleanor the Queen and including some romanticized episodes - starting off with the young Eleanor planning to elope with a young knight - who is killed out of hand by her guardian, in order to facilitate her marriage to the King's son. [18] While many historians[who?] As they ascended the mountains, however, the army and the king and queen were horrified to discover the unburied corpses of the Germans killed earlier. "On the second day in Easter week, he was slain in the city by a man-at-arms in the service of Brandin,"[28] a rival mercenary captain. [9] Later, during the first four years of Henry II's reign, her siblings joined Eleanor's royal household. Henry was by no means faithful to his wife and had a reputation for philandering. A marriage between Henry and Eleanor's daughter Marie had earlier been declared impossible due to their status as third cousins once removed. Louis and Eleanor stayed in the Philopation palace just outside the city walls. Many men, horses, and much of the baggage were cast into the canyon below. As soon as John heard of this, he marched south, overcame the besiegers, and captured the 15-year-old Arthur, and probably his sister Eleanor, Fair Maid of Brittany, whom Eleanor had raised with Richard. Louis became involved in a war with Count Theobald by permitting Raoul I, Count of Vermandois and seneschal of France, to repudiate his wife Eleanor of Blois, Theobald's sister, and to marry Petronilla of Aquitaine, Eleanor's sister. In eastern Europe, the French army was at times hindered by Manuel I Comnenus, the Byzantine Emperor, who feared that the Crusade would jeopardise the tenuous safety of his empire. It was a gamble that did not pay off, and whether through military error or betrayal, the Damascus campaign was a failure. Louis of France had remarried and been widowed; he married for the third time and finally fathered a long-hoped-for son, Philip Augustus, also known as Dieudonne—God-given). Eleanor also lived well into the reign of Richard's heir and her youngest son, John. It may have been largely to teach manners, something the French courts would be known for in later generations. [4] On the other hand, some chronicles mention a fidelity oath of some lords of Aquitaine on the occasion of Eleanor's fourteenth birthday in 1136. Louis, however, still burned with guilt over the massacre at Vitry and wished to make a pilgrimage to the Holy Land to atone for his sins. Eleanor was crowned queen of England by the archbishop of Canterbury on 19 December 1154. Lycée Aliénor d'Aquitaine, lycée général et technologique public à Poitiers (86000) : enseignements en seconde, première et terminale, adresse, téléphone... retrouvez toutes les informations utiles sur ce lycée général et technologique public In Penman's historical mysteries, Eleanor, as Richard's regent, sends squire Justin de Quincy on various missions, often an investigation of a situation involving Prince John. However, while camping near Nicea, the remnants of the German army, including a dazed and sick Conrad III, staggered past the French camp, bringing news of their disaster. Her four-year-old brother William Aigret and their mother died at the castle of Talmont on Aquitaine's Atlantic coast in the spring of 1130. [3] Eleanor developed skills in conversation, dancing, games such as backgammon, checkers, and chess, playing the harp, and singing. [2] However, after the birth of her second daughter Alix, Louis agreed to an annulment, as 15 years of marriage had not produced a son. Arthur learned of her whereabouts and besieged her in the castle of Mirebeau. [7] Andreas wrote for the court of the king of France, where Eleanor was not held in esteem. © Lycée Aliénor d'Aquitaine, Poitiers 2010 - 2020 41 rue Pierre de Coubertin 86000 Poitiers, France Tél : +33 (0)5 49 44 81 00 Fax: +33 (0)5 49 44 81 10 In 1199, under the terms of a truce between King Philip II and King John, it was agreed that Philip's 12-year-old heir-apparent Louis would be married to one of John's nieces, daughters of his sister Eleanor of England, queen of Castile. In a matter of weeks, peace had returned to France: Theobald's provinces were returned and Pierre de la Chatre was installed as archbishop of Bourges. For this reason Henry summoned Eleanor to Normandy in the late summer of 1183. His eldest surviving son, Louis, had originally been destined for monastic life, but had become the heir apparent when the firstborn, Philip, died in a riding accident in 1131.[11]. Although he had been invested as such on 8 August 1137, a messenger gave him the news that Louis VI had died of dysentery on 1 August while he and Eleanor were making a tour of the provinces. Children born to a marriage that was later annulled were not at risk of being "bastardised," because "[w]here parties married in good faith, without knowledge of an impediment, ... children of the marriage were legitimate." "[15], Official blame for the disaster was placed on Geoffrey de Rancon, who had made the decision to continue, and it was suggested that he be hanged, a suggestion which the king ignored. France. Her tomb effigy shows her reading a Bible and is decorated with magnificent jewellery. While in the eastern Mediterranean, Eleanor learned about maritime conventions developing there, which were the beginnings of what would become admiralty law. He records some twenty-one cases, the most famous of them being a problem posed to the women about whether true love can exist in marriage. Envie de découvrir les autres traces dans la région ? The Duchy of Aquitaine was the largest and richest province of France. This resulted in the army becoming separated, with some having already crossed the summit and others still approaching it. Louis was a weak and ineffectual military leader with no skill for maintaining troop discipline or morale, or of making informed and logical tactical decisions. She was also instrumental in developing trade agreements with Constantinople and ports of trade in the Holy Lands. [13], Louis's tenure as count of Poitou and duke of Aquitaine and Gascony lasted only a few days. Louis's long march to Jerusalem and back north, which Eleanor was forced to join, debilitated his army and disheartened her knights; the divided Crusade armies could not overcome the Muslim forces, and the royal couple had to return home. "[10][30] William of Newburgh emphasised the charms of her person, and even in her old age Richard of Devizes described her as beautiful, while Matthew Paris, writing in the 13th century, recalled her "admirable beauty. Henry fathered other, illegitimate children throughout the marriage. Now 77, Eleanor set out from Poitiers. [7][14], Possessing a high-spirited nature, Eleanor was not popular with the staid northerners; according to sources, Louis's mother Adelaide of Maurienne thought her flighty and a bad influence. © Lycée Aliénor d'Aquitaine, Poitiers 2010 - 2020 41 rue Pierre de Coubertin 86000 Poitiers, France Tél : +33 (0)5 49 44 81 00 Fax: +33 (0)5 49 44 81 10 She was given shelter and food by servants of King Roger II of Sicily, until the king eventually reached Calabria, and she set out to meet him there. Attempts were made to claim Toulouse, the rightful inheritance of Eleanor's grandmother Philippa of Toulouse, but they ended in failure. Archbishop Samson of Reims acted for Eleanor. From the moment the Crusaders entered Asia Minor, things began to go badly. John Speed, in his 1611 work History of Great Britain, mentions the possibility that Eleanor had a son named Philip, who died young. Moodle SIO2. He added that she gained the epithet chrysopous (golden-foot) from the cloth of gold that decorated and fringed her robe. Enseignement secondaire et supérieur, filières générales et technologiques, découvrez les formations que nous proposons. Poitou, where Eleanor spent most of her childhood, and Aquitaine together was almost one-third the size of modern France. Louis's refusal and his forcing her to accompany him humiliated Eleanor, and she maintained a low profile for the rest of the crusade. During her imprisonment, Eleanor became more and more distant from her sons, especially from Richard, who had always been her favourite. On Saturday, 11 June 1183, the young king realized he was dying and was overcome with remorse for his sins. Tél: +33 (0)5 49 44 81 00. Horrified, and desiring an end to the war, Louis attempted to make peace with Theobald in exchange for his support in lifting the interdict on Raoul and Petronilla. This tragedy was too much for the elderly queen, who was fatigued and unable to continue to Normandy. Eleanor supported her uncle's desire to re-capture the nearby County of Edessa, the objective of the Crusade. Le Domaine Aliénor d’Aquitaine, un lieu atypique. In the 2003 television film The Lion in Winter, Eleanor was played by Glenn Close alongside Patrick Stewart as Henry. Bienvenue sur le portail de la section BTS SIO du Lycée Aliénor d'Aquitaine de Poitiers ! Damascus was a major wealthy trading centre and was under normal circumstances a potential threat, but the rulers of Jerusalem had recently entered into a truce with the city, which they then forswore. Présentation du Lycée Aliénor d'Aquitaine, établissement Public de Poitiers (86). Eleanor played a key role in raising the ransom demanded from England by Henry VI and in the negotiations with the Holy Roman Emperor that eventually secured Richard's release. Although this was perhaps a better military plan, Louis was not keen to fight in northern Syria. Rancon, however, chose to continue on, deciding in concert with Amadeus III, Count of Savoy, Louis's uncle, that a nearby plateau would make a better campsite. (établissement d’Hébergement pour Personnes Agées Dépendantes) ce qui nous permet grâce à une équipe soignante renforcée de gérer la prise en charge de la dépendance de nos résidents. She insisted on taking part in the Crusades as the feudal leader of the soldiers from her duchy. Henry was her third cousin and 11 years younger. The duke also insisted to his companions that his death be kept a secret until Louis was informed; the men were to journey from Saint James of Compostela across the Pyrenees as quickly as possible to call at Bordeaux to notify the archbishop, then to make all speed to Paris to inform the king. Par son père Guillaume X et sa mère Aliénor de Châtellerault, elle fait partie de la dynastie des ducs d’Aquitaineet sera l’héritière d’un riche domaine : l’Aquitaine et le Poitou. by the Pope. Accordingly, Louis declared on Christmas Day 1145 at Bourges his intention of going on a crusade. 86034 POITIERS. The exhausted Eleanor went to Fontevraud, where she remained. [3] There was, however, another prominent Eleanor before her—Eleanor of Normandy, an aunt of William the Conqueror, who lived a century earlier than Eleanor of Aquitaine. In The Art of Courtly Love, Andreas Capellanus, Andrew the chaplain, refers to the court of Poitiers. Fondée en 1431, l'Université de Poitiers regroupe toutes les disciplines dans ses 14 facultés, instituts et écoles. [7] Eleanor rode to Westminster and received the oaths of fealty from many lords and prelates on behalf of the king. Consanguinity was grounds for annulment in the medieval period. Eleanor of Aquitaine also formally took up the cross symbolic of the Second Crusade during a sermon preached by Bernard of Clairvaux. Much money went into making the austere Cité Palace in Paris more comfortable for Eleanor's sake.[11]. In mid-July, Eleanor's ship finally reached Palermo in Sicily, where she discovered that she and her husband had both been given up for dead. Henry and Eleanor are the main characters in James Goldman's 1966 play The Lion in Winter, which was made into a film in 1968 starring Peter O'Toole as Henry and Katharine Hepburn in the role of Eleanor, for which she won the Academy Award for Best Actress and the BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role and was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress—Motion Picture Drama. Flower and Hawk is a monodrama for soprano and orchestra, written by American composer, Carlisle Floyd that premiered in 1972, in which the soprano (Eleanor of Aquitaine) relives past memories of her time as queen, and at the end of the monodrama, hears the bells that toll for Henry II's death, and in turn, her freedom. Eleanor died in 1204 and was entombed in Fontevraud Abbey next to her husband Henry and her son Richard. Eleanor appears to have taken an ambivalent attitude towards these affairs. Belle et séduisante, un sourire charmeur, un doux regard, des manières nobles, l’esprit vif et cultivé, elle aime les fêtes et les fleurs. Le Parc d'activités éco-industriel Aliénor d'Aquitaine se trouve à l'ouest de Poitiers, à proximité immédiate de l'aéroport de Poitiers et de l'A10. musi q ue. From there, "the younger Henry, devising evil against his father from every side by the advice of the French king, went secretly into Aquitaine where his two youthful brothers, Richard and Geoffrey, were living with their mother, and with her connivance, so it is said, he incited them to join him. As soon as she arrived in Poitiers, Eleanor sent envoys to Henry, Duke of Normandy and future king of England, asking him to come at once to marry her. Historical fiction author Elizabeth Chadwick wrote a three-volume series about Eleanor: The Summer Queen (2013), The Winter Crown (2014) and The Autumn Throne (2016). Edifice emblématique de Poitiers, le Palais des ducs d’Aquitaine constitue l’un des plus remarquables ensembles d’architecture civile médiévale en France. Lycée Aliénor D'aquitaine. Cease to stir up the king against the Church, and urge upon him a better course of action. In Sharon Kay Penman's Plantagenet novels, she figures prominently in When Christ and His Saints Slept, Time and Chance, and Devil's Brood, and also appears in Lionheart and A King's Ransom, both of which focus on the reign of her son, Richard, as king of England. Accordingly, by mid-afternoon, the rear of the column —believing the day's march to be nearly at an end —was dawdling. In response, Eleanor broke down and meekly excused her behaviour, claiming to be bitter because of her lack of children. Polly Schroyer Brooks, the author of a non-academic biography of Eleanor, suggests that the court did exist, but that it was not taken very seriously, and that acts of courtly love were just a "parlour game" made up by Eleanor and Marie in order to place some order over the young courtiers living there. Elle a été duchesse d’Aquitaine, comtesse du Poitou, reine de France de 1137 à 1152 et reine d’Angleterre de 1154 à 1189. The four published mysteries are the Queen's Man, Cruel as the Grave, Dragon's Lair, and Prince of Darkness. According to Capellanus, the women decided that it was not at all likely. The French, with what remained of the Germans, then began to march in increasingly disorganised fashion towards Antioch. Le prénom devient Éléanor en langue d'oïl. In April 1145, Eleanor gave birth to a daughter, Marie. King Philip II of France claimed that certain properties in Normandy belonged to his half-sister Margaret, widow of the young Henry, but Henry insisted that they had once belonged to Eleanor and would revert to her upon her son's death. Eleanor had only one other legitimate sibling, a younger sister named Aelith also called Petronilla. It became Eléanor in the langues d'oïl of northern France and Eleanor in English. Eventually, he arranged events so that Eleanor had no choice[clarification needed] but to sleep with Louis in a bed specially prepared[how?] In the 2014 film Richard the Lionheart: Rebellion, Eleanor is played by Debbie Rochon. Moodle SIO1. Little is known of Eleanor's involvement in these events. Louis was personally involved in the assault and burning of the town of Vitry. [Adelaide] perhaps [based] her preconceptions on another southerner, Constance of Provence ... tales of her allegedly immodest dress and language still continued to circulate among the sober Franks. If you will promise to do this, I in return promise to entreat the merciful Lord to grant you offspring." It is also speculated that Eleanor placed Rosamund in a bathtub and had an old woman cut Rosamund's arms. Eleanor survived Richard and lived well into the reign of her youngest son, King John. The chronicler William of Tyre, writing between 1170 and 1184 and thus perhaps too long after the event to be considered historically accurate, placed the blame for this disaster firmly on the amount of baggage being carried, much of it reputedly belonging to Eleanor and her ladies, and the presence of non-combatants. This, and her known age of 82 at her death make 1122 more likely the year of birth. Yet despite his impending death, Louis's mind remained clear. ", In spite of all these words of praise, no one left a more detailed description of Eleanor; the colour of her hair and eyes, for example, are unknown. Those who tried to escape were caught and killed. Elle reçoit l'éducation soignée d'une femme noble de son époque à la cour d’Aquitaine, l’une des plus raffinées du XIIe siècle, celle qui voit naître l'amour courtois (le fin amor). To strengthen their argument, they state that there is no other evidence that Marie ever stayed with her mother in Poitiers. They were in high spirits on Christmas Eve, when they chose to camp in a lush valley near Ephesus. L’enfance d’Aliénor d’Aquitaine Son enfance est très mal connue. During Richard's absence, royal authority in England was represented by a Council of Regency in conjunction with a succession of chief justiciars – William de Longchamp (1190–1191), Walter de Coutances (1191–1193), and finally Hubert Walter. Eleanor remained in England with her daughter for the year prior to Matilda's departure for Normandy in September. Even before the Crusade, Eleanor and Louis were becoming estranged, and their differences were only exacerbated while they were abroad. When she was around 30, Bernard de Ventadour, a noted troubadour, called her "gracious, lovely, the embodiment of charm," extolling her "lovely eyes and noble countenance" and declaring that she was "one meet to crown the state of any king. In 1167, Eleanor's third daughter, Matilda, married Henry the Lion of Saxony. Cette page web vous détaille l'établissement "Lycée Aliénor d'Aquitaine", Lycée Général et Technologique, localisé à l'adresse 41 Rue Pierre de Coubertin, 86000 Poitiers, dépendant de l'Académie de Poitiers, dont l'identifiant national est 0860038Z.Ce lycée est public. [7] Over the next few years Eleanor often travelled with her husband and was sometimes associated with him in the government of the realm, but still had a custodian so that she was not free. This notorious affair caused a monkish scribe to transcribe Rosamund's name in Latin to "Rosa Immundi", or "Rose of Unchastity". Three months after becoming duchess upon the death of her father, William X, she married King Louis VII of France, son of her guardian, King Louis VI. Accueil. She introduced those conventions in her own lands on the island of Oléron in 1160 (with the "Rolls of Oléron") and later in England as well. "Young Henry," son of Henry and Eleanor, wed Margaret, daughter of Louis from his second marriage. Le Lycée dispose de 182 personnels en activité dans leur affectation principale (Hors Enseignants qui ne sont pas dans leur affectation principale, Hors agents comme le personnel de cuisine, AESH, ASEN, Services Civiques et direction), soit un ratio élèves par … Elle érige la ville de Poitiers en commune et c’est sous son règne qu’est construit le grand mur de fortifications qui entoure la ville. BTS SIO Aliénor. Upon reaching Bordeaux, he left them in the charge of the archbishop of Bordeaux, one of his few loyal vassals. He fled to Paris. On 18 May 1152 (Whit Sunday), eight weeks after her annulment, Eleanor married Henry "without the pomp and ceremony that befitted their rank."[20]. Eleanor of Aquitaine is thought to be the queen of England mentioned in the poem "Were diu werlt alle min," used as the tenth movement of Carl Orff's famous cantata, Carmina Burana.[33]. When she was young, she was described as perpulchra – more than beautiful. Here they were ambushed by a Turkish detachment, but the French proceeded to slaughter this detachment and appropriate their camp. All that can be said is that her court at Poitiers was most likely a catalyst for the increased popularity of courtly love literature in the Western European regions. Eleanor, aged 12 to 15, then became the duchess of Aquitaine, and thus the most eligible heiress in Europe. But rather than allowing her to stay, Louis took Eleanor from Antioch against her will and continued on to Jerusalem with his dwindling army.[16]. Eleanor features in the novel Via Crucis (1899) by F. Marion Crawford.[32]. Rather than act as guardian to the duchess and duchy, he decided to marry the duchess to his 17-year-old heir and bring Aquitaine under the control of the French crown, thereby greatly increasing the power and prominence of France and its ruling family, the House of Capet.