"In our view," wrote Pohl & Witte in 2001, "there is no evidence to justify a figure higher than that of 600,000 victims. "[27], It is believed that some 50 Jews might have escaped from Bełżec successfully, although most of them perished before the commencement of the "Final Solution". Any Jews kept alive in the camps were dedicated expediting this process. The gassing installation was imperfect and usually only one or two rooms were working, causing a backlog. Bełżec, Sobibor, Treblinka. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 19. Roman Robak was one of only two Holocaust survivors of the Bełżec extermination camp who testified about his experience after the war. [37] In his postwar report written at the Rottweil hotel while in the French custody, Gerstein described his visit to Bełżec on 19 or 18 August 1942. [56] The difference between the "low-end" figure and other estimates can be explained by the lack of exact and detailed sources on the deportations statistics. [11] In einer zweiten Phase ab August 1942 wurden Juden aus dem gesamten Generalgouvernement als Opfer herangeschafft. The site was planted with small firs and wild lupines and all camp structures were dismantled. [35][36], The more detailed description of how the gas chambers at Bełżec were managed came in 1945 from Kurt Gerstein, Head of the Technical Disinfection Services who used to deliver Zyklon B to Auschwitz from the company called Degesch during the Holocaust. Die Niemann-Sammlung zu Holocaust und Nationalsozialismus. They can be heard weeping 'like in the synagogue', says Professor Pfannenstiel,[b] his eyes glued to a window in the wooden door. Unloading ramp and cremation rails (historical artefacts). But it doesn't go. The wooden gas chambers were dismantled. Im anderen Lagerkomplex befanden sich mehrere Leichengruben, Unterkünfte für die Juden des Sonderkommandos und die Gaskammern. [45] This number became widely accepted in the literature. Obóz zagłady w Bełżcu (oficjalnie SS-Sonderkommando Belzec lub Dienststelle Belzec der Waffen SS) – niemiecki nazistowski obóz zagłady funkcjonujący w czasie II wojny światowej, od marca 1942 roku do czerwca 1943 roku, w pobliżu wsi i stacji kolejowej Bełżec.. Obóz został utworzony w ramach akcji „Reinhardt”; prowadzono w nim eksterminację ludności żydowskiej. [3] The German SS and the administration were housed in two cottages outside the camp. [25] It could handle over 1,000 victims at a time. The remaining new arrivals were marched naked in batches to the gas chambers; beaten with whips to squeeze tighter inside. 2004 wurde eine neue Gedenkstätte nach Entwürfen der polnischen Bildhauer Andrzej Sołyga, Zdzisław Pidek und Marcin Roszczyk eröffnet, die die Topografie des Lagers und der Vernichtungsmaschinerie dort aufzeigt, wo bis dahin nur planierte Erde zu sehen war. Vom Bahnhof führte ein Eisenbahngleis zum Lagertor. Die Bilder zeigen zudem erstmals den 2011 in München verurteilten Trawniki-Mann Iwan Demjanjuk auf dem Lagergelände in Sobibor. The first death camps were Treblinka, Bełżec, and Sobibór. [10], In the territory of the so-called Nisko 'reservation', the city of Lublin became the hub of early Nazi transfer of about 95,000 German, Austrian, and Polish Jews expelled from the West and the General Government area. Belzec, Polish Bełżec, Nazi German complex of concentration camps and an extermination camp in and near the village of Bełżec along the Lublin-Lviv railway line in the Lublin province of German-occupied Poland. They return swept clean most often the same evening. Several people tried to escape from Bełżec, but only one of them, Rudolf Reder, survived. You can't imagine what we find every day—dollars, diamonds, gold. The labor camp and, later the killing center, were located between the cities of Zamosc and Lvov (today Lviv), about 70 miles southeast of Lublin. … This was a key part of Hitler's "Final Solution". [53] The camp had ceased to operate for mass killings by then. "[29] The last transport of Jews arrived at Bełżec on 11 December 1942. The two camps were connected by a narrow corridor called der Schlauch, or "Tube". After full zooming use arrows keys to change image and ESC key to close zoom. In the midst of them stood Captain Wirth. [16] The site near Bełżec was chosen for several reasons: it was situated on the border between the Lublin District and the German District of Galicia formed after Operation Barbarossa. Erst Ende 1963 wurde ein erstes Denkmal mit der Tafelinschrift „Zur Erinnerung an die Opfer des Hitlerterrors“ errichtet, das den Hinweis auf die jüdischen Opfer vermied. Eventually, Belzec consisted of two subcamps: Camp I, which included the barracks of the Ukrainians, the workshops and barracks of the Jews, the reception area with two undressing barracks, and Camp II, which contained the gas chambers and the mass graves. The accused were set free except for Oberhauser, who was sentenced to 4½ years of imprisonment, and released after serving half of his sentence. While Reder submitted a deposition in January 1946 in Kraków, Hirszman was assassinated in March 1946 at his home, by so-called "cursed soldiers", from the anti-communist resistance organisation TOW. Holocaust Denial and Operation Reinhard, International Youth Meeting Center in Oświęcim/Auschwitz, Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Belzec_extermination_camp&oldid=995396544, Articles with German-language sources (de), Wikipedia extended-confirmed-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Polish, German, Ukrainian and Austrian Jews. (Following the war's end, Hirszman had joined MBP, a secret police organisation created by the new Stalinist regime in Poland, to crush the anti-communist underground. The mechanics of Sobibor death camp were the subject of interviews filmed on location for the 1985 documentary film Shoah by Claude Lanzmann. Another prominent Holocaust survivor with a connection to Bełżec is philanthropist Anita Ekstein, former national chair of March of the Living Canada. Neben einigen SS-Männern war eine Kompanie von 60 – später 120 – „Trawniki-Männern“ eingesetzt. Underground passage built in place of former "Sluice" into the gas chambers, evokes the feelings of no escape, Belzec extermination camp memorial. Weitere T4-Mitarbeiter kamen ab Januar 1942 hinzu. Work had commenced in early November 1941, using local builders overseen by a squad of Trawniki guards. [10], There was a hand-painted sign on the new building that read Stiftung Hackenholt or Hackenholt Foundation named after the SS man who designed it. [26] The workshops for the Jewish prisoners and the barracks for the Ukrainian guards were separated from the "processing" zone behind an embankment of the old Otto Line with the barb-wire on top. The ditch, excavated originally for military purposes was likely to serve as the first mass grave. [22][23], Anhand von Berichten der wenigen Überlebenden und Interviews mit Bewohnern der Gegend gelingt es G. Moscovitz, einen Teil der Geschichte des Lagers zu rekonstruieren. The historian Eugeniusz Szrojt in his 1947 study published by the Bulletin of the Main Commission for the Investigation of German Crimes in Poland (Biuletyn Głównej Komisji Badania Zbrodni Niemieckich w Polsce, 1947) following an investigation by GKBZNwP which began in 1945, estimated the number of people murdered in Bełżec at 600,000. Nur drei Überlebende des Vernichtungslagers, die ihre Lagererlebnisse öffentlich darstellten, sind bekannt: Rudolf Reder aus Lemberg, Chaim Hirszman aus Janów Lubelski und der chassidische Rabbiner Izrael Szapiro aus Lemberg. He managed to escape in November 1942, and after the war wrote an account of his life in the camp Altogether, 600 000 people were murdered in the Bełżec camp during a period of seven months. During the construction of the Mausoleum trees planted by the, Camps, ghettos, execution sites and attacks, Perpetrators, participants, organizations, and collaborators, Resistance: Judenrat, victims, documentation and technical, Experience in the Aktion T4 euthanasia program, The bricks-and-mortar building with the new gas chambers had six cubicles, each about 25, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFKleeDressenRiess1991 (, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, harvtxt error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFKleeDressenRiess1991 (, Kopciowski, A. 1940. Alderney, Channel Islands: ill-treatment of Russian forced labourers. [3][6] This makes it the third-deadliest extermination camp, exceeded only by Treblinka and Auschwitz. Raul Hilberg gave a figure of 550,000. [7] Dieses Lager in Bełżec war das erste von drei Vernichtungslagern der „Aktion Reinhardt“, die allein zur physischen Vernichtung von Menschen bestimmt waren. Only seven Jews performing slave labour with the camp's Sonderkommando survived World War II;[5] and only one of them became known,[7] thanks to his postwar testimony submitted officially. [4] The burning of exhumed corpses on five open-air grids and bone crushing continued until March 1943. Thus, Y. Arad writes, that he had to rely, in part, on Yizkor books of Jewish ghettos, which were not guaranteed to give the exact estimates of the numbers of deportees. Dezember 1942 erging ein wochenlanges Verbot von „nicht-militärischen“ Eisenbahntransporten; nach Robert Kuwałek war der Hauptgrund für das Abstoppen der Tötungen jedoch die Überfüllung der Massengräber. November 1941 begann unter der Zentralbauleitung der SS der Bau eines Lagers, das eine fest installierte Gaskammer erhielt. [c] Another 25 minutes elapsed. 1942-08-01 Gottlieb Hering replaces Christian Wirth in Bełżec. Lorenz Hackenholt survived the defeat of Germany, but disappeared in 1945 without a trace. Bełżec's three gas chambers began operating officially on … Bełżec fell within the German zone of occupation in accordance with the German-Soviet Pact against Poland. [3] Most Jews from the corpse-unit (the Totenjuden) were killed periodically and replaced by new arrivals, so that they would neither organise a revolt nor survive to tell about the camp's purpose. [47] All corpses buried at Bełżec were secretly exhumed and then gradually cremated on long open-air pyres, part of the country-wide plan known as the Sonderaktion 1005. [13] Seit November 1942 wurden Leichen massenhaft exhumiert und auf großen Rosten aus Eisenbahnschienen verbrannt. Treblinka, 50.37166666666723.4575Koordinaten: 50° 22′ 18″ N, 23° 27′ 27″ O, Ermordung von Behinderten im deutschen Reichsgebiet (auch Aktion T4), Artikelabschnitt Belzec im Artikel Gaskammer (Massenmord), Artikelabschnitt Aktion Reinhardt im Artikel Lorenz Hackenholt, Liste der Konzentrationslager des Deutschen Reichs, Erhalt und Instandsetzung „Kommandantur Bełżec“, Gedenkstätte Belzec - Aufnahmen vom Oktober 2010, Belzec – eine Gedenkstätte für die Opfer der Shoah. [60] In the late 1990s extensive investigations were carried out on the camp grounds to determine precisely the camp's extent and provide greater understanding of its operation. [3] There were many technical difficulties with the early attempts at mass extermination. "those willing to help") in the concentration camps as guards and gas chamber operators. It was located in the sparsely-populated north east of the Generalgouvernement area, on the Warsaw-Białystock line, close to an existing penal camp founded in 1941. Wirth's house and the neighbouring SS building, which had been the property of the Polish Railway before the war, were not demolished. See Beginning of the resistance movement in the camp. [9], In the Second Polish Republic, the village of Bełżec was situated between the two major cities in the southeastern part of the country including Lublin 76 kilometres (47 mi) northwest of Bełżec, and Lwów to the southeast (German: Lemberg, now Lviv, Ukraine) with the largest Jewish populations in the region. He also relied on partial German railway documentation, from which the number of trains could be gleaned. [18] Dolpheid negotiated with the SS-Oberführer Viktor Brack in Berlin for the use of the Aktion T4 personnel in the process. [34] Józef Marszałek calculated 500,000. Having previously overseen the construction of Bełżec extermination camp, he applied lessons learned there to Sobibor. After 2 hours and 49 minutes—the stopwatch recorded it all—the diesel started. Chris Webb, Victor Smart & Carmelo Lisciotto (2009), The Bełżec Death Camp.