[127] A 2014 report by the Fraser Institute indicated that "Relative to its size, Quebec is the most indebted province in Canada by a wide margin".[128]. La Province de Québec (anglais : Province of Quebec) était une colonie britannique d'Amérique du Nord créée par la Grande-Bretagne à la suite de la guerre de Conquête de 1759-1760 et de la fin de la guerre de Sept Ans. The tundra vegetation survives an average annual temperature of −8 °C (18 °F). In 1977, the Quebec Parliament declared June 24 to be Quebec's National Holiday. Get directions, maps, and traffic for Quebec, QC. Arguments pour "province DU Québec": - on dit la province DU Manitoba, DU Nouveau-Brunswick. From New France, Quebec literature was first developed in the travel accounts of explorers such as Jacques Cartier, Jean de Brébeuf, the Baron de La Hontan and Nicolas Perrot, describing their relations with indigenous peoples. [238] These sites were designated as being of national historic significance.[239]. [24] Each became one of the first four provinces. [22] In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada. This industry generated 487,000 jobs in agriculture, fisheries, manufacturing of food, beverages and tobacco and food distribution.[171]. It supports creation, innovation, production, and international exhibits for all cultural fields of Quebec. Other Info. Percentages are calculated as a proportion of the total number of respondents (7,435,905).Only groups with more than 0.5 percent of respondents are shown. The knowledge sector represents about 30.9% of Quebec's GDP. The debate over the status of Quebec is a highly animated one to this day. 312", "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations, 2011 and 2006 censuses", "Gross domestic product, expenditure-based, by province and territory", "Canadian Federal and Provincial Fiscal Tables", "Dette: le Québec, cancre d'une classe surdouée", "Quebec credit rating surpasses Ontario for first time ever", "L'expertise québécoise en haute technologie", "L'économie du savoir en mutation au Québec", "The Benefits of Investing in Québec Research & Development", "Les raisons d'une implantation multiple dans un pays clé de l'aéronautique mondial", "Stratégie de développement de l'industrie aéronautique québécoise", "Québec veut investir 2 milliards pour stimuler l'économie", "Investir en TIC, innovation et créativité | Investissement Québec", "Industrie minière et substances exploitées", "Encore "dix ans difficiles" pour l'industrie forestière", "Le Québec est le chouchou de l'industrie minière", "Industrie minière: valeur des expéditions, selon les principales substances minérales, Québec", "Le Québec chiffres en main, édition 2009 – Végétation", "Stratégie québécoise de la recherche et de l'innovation (SQRI) 2010–2013", "Comparaisons économiques internationales", "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1992 Rudolph A. Marcus", "Science and Technology: Portal of the government of Québec", "Québec had 195 triadic inventions patented", "ombre de publications scientifiques en sciences naturelles et génie par 100,000 habitants, provinces et territoires, 1980 à 2009", "Nombre de publications scientifiques en sciences naturelles et génie, Québec, Ontario, pays du G8, pays nordiques, certains pays émergents et monde, et part dans le total mondial, 1980 à 2009", "Les publications scientifiques québécoises de 1991 à 2000", "A fourth planet around the star HR 8799", "La NASA acquiert une caméra conçue à l'UdeM", "Québec Science remet le Prix du public Découverte de l'année 2009 à un chercheur d'étoiles", "Un oeil de lynx pour la NASA grâce à un Lévisien", "La recherche et le développement au Québec", "Railway Gazette: Railway could tap Québec's northern wealth", "The Route verte puts all of Quebec within reach of your handlebars! Reporte von Betroffenen über La province du quebec. The provincial debt-to-GDP ratio peaked at 50.7% in fiscal year 2012–2013, and is projected to decline to 33.8% in 2023–2024. The Association québécoise de l'industrie du disque, du spectacle et de la vidéo (ADISQ) was created in 1978 to promote the music industry in Quebec. It is rich in the forestry, mineral and hydro-electric resources that are a mainstay of the Quebec economy. Many feared the establishment of Catholicism in Quebec, and that the French Canadians were being courted to help oppress British Americans.[92]. [118][119]. This led to the formation of the sovereigntist Bloc Québécois party in Ottawa under the leadership of Lucien Bouchard,[111] who had resigned from the federal cabinet. English was also used in the legislature, government commissions and courts. During the campaign, Pierre Trudeau promised that a vote for the "no" side was a vote for reforming Canada. In a similar way, the Association of Film and Television in Quebec (APFTQ) promotes independent production in film and television. [69] The Inuit continue to fish and hunt whale and seal in the harsh Arctic climate along the coasts of Hudson and Ungava Bay. [156] Science and technology are key factors in the economic position of Quebec. Beginning in 1963, a paramilitary group that became known as the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) launched a decade-long programme of propaganda and terrorism that included bombings, robberies and attacks[105] directed primarily at English institutions, resulting in at least five deaths. (Figures shown are for single-language responses only. The flag in its present form with its 4 white "fleur-de-lis" lilies on a blue background with a white cross replaced the Union Jack on Quebec's Parliament Building on January 21, 1948. [153] Quebec's spending in R&D in 2011 was equal to 2.63% of GDP, above the European Union average of 1.84% and will have to reaches the target of devoting 3% of GDP to research and development activities in 2013 according to the Lisbon Strategy. [70] These people traded fur and food and sometimes warred with each other. [93] Although some help was given to the Americans by the locals, Governor Carleton punished American sympathizers, and public support of the American cause came to an end. [57] Avian fauna includes birds of prey like the golden eagle, the peregrine falcon, the snowy owl and the bald eagle. [162], About 180 000 Quebeckers work in different field of information technology. Although reaction to conscription was favourable in English Canada the idea was deeply unpopular in Quebec. The Prix du Québec is an award given by the government to confer the highest distinction and honour to individuals demonstrating exceptional achievement in their respective cultural field. The Quiet Revolution was a period of dramatic social and political change[104] that saw the decline of Anglo supremacy in the Quebec economy, the decline of the Roman Catholic Church's influence,[14] the formation of hydroelectric companies under Hydro-Québec[104] and the emergence of a pro-sovereignty movement under former Liberal minister René Lévesque. Quebec also produces a great number of high-quality wines including ice wine and ice cider. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. By 1903, the parent of today's flag had taken shape, known as the "Fleurdelisé". Latitude and longitude coordinates are: 53.000000, -70.000000. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Their lifestyles and cultures reflected the land on which they lived. The government of Quebec awards an order of merit called the National Order of Quebec. [181] It is also considered as one of the world leaders in sectors such as aerospace, information technology, biotechnology and pharmaceuticals, and therefore plays a significant role in the world's scientific and technological communities. This is a legacy of colonial times when only Roman Catholics were permitted to settle in New France. In 2009, its gross domestic product (GDP) of US$32,408 per capita at purchasing power parity puts the province at par with Japan, Italy and Spain, but remains lower than the Canadian average of US$37,830 per capita. Vol. ", "Government of Canada Helps Boost Biofuel Industry", "Gros plan sur l'énergie: Production d'électricité", "Le premier ministre énonce sa vision et crée une commission spéciale d'étude", "Folk Song and Music in Quebec: a Brief Introduction, by Stephen D. Winick, Ph.D.: Expanded Liner Notes (Le temps des Fetes, Washington Revels, revelsdc.org/canadiancd)", "Notre raison d'être, c'est la musique de votre quotidien", "L'Association des producteurs de films et de télévision du Québec", "L'Association des radiodiffuseurs communautaires du Québec, historique", "Agreement on the usage of Churches in Quebec", "About the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada – Duties", "Who won team canada's 29 medals in Pyeongchang", Justice Québec – Drapeauet et symboles nationaux, "Amiral [Toile des insectes du Québec — Insectarium ]", CBC Digital Archives – Quebec Elections: 1960–1998, Montreal Metropolitan Community (Communauté métropolitaine de Montréal), Former colonies and territories in Canada, Proposed provinces and territories of Canada, World Wars and Interwar Years (1914–1945), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Quebec&oldid=992781194, States and territories established in 1867, French-speaking countries and territories, Pages with non-numeric formatnum arguments, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, All Wikipedia articles written in Canadian English, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with possible motto list, Pages using infobox settlement with possible demonym list, Pages using infobox settlement with image map1 but not image map, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from June 2019, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from June 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2012, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2012, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Since 1987 the avian emblem of Quebec has been the. Information Bulletin. This contrasts with its fertility rates before 1960, which were among the highest of any industrialized society. [161] Pauline Marois has recently unveiled a two billion dollar budget for the period between 2013 to 2017 to create about 115,000 new jobs in knowledge and innovation sectors. The réseau routier québécois (Quebec road network) is managed by the Société de l'assurance automobile du Québec (SAAQ) (Quebec Automobile Insurance Corporation) and consists of about 185,000 kilometres (115,000 mi) of highways and national, regional, local, collector and forest roads. La province du quebec - Die preiswertesten La province du quebec unter die Lupe genommen In der folgende Liste sehen Sie als Kunde unsere absolute Top-Auswahl von La province du quebec, wobei die oberste Position unseren Vergleichssieger darstellt. Antonyms for Province de Québec. Mit La province du quebec einen Versuch zu wagen - für den Fall, dass Sie von den hervorragenden Aktionen des Fabrikanten nutzen ziehen - scheint eine ziemlich großartige Idee zu sein. [194][195][196] The Mont Mégantic Observatory was recently equipped with this camera. Primary industries sustain small cities in regions of Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean, and Côte-Nord. The Cultural Heritage Fund is a program of the Quebec government[235] for the conservation and development of Quebec's heritage, together with various laws. [29], Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water,[30] occupying 12% of its surface. The fleur-de-lis, the ancient symbol of the French monarchy, first arrived on the shores of the Gaspésie in 1534 with Jacques Cartier on his first voyage. En 1791, l'Acte constitutionnel mit fin à l'existence légale de la Province de Québec en la divisant en deu… It is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as … Quebec has subdivisions at the regional, supralocal and local levels. Because of the climate and available resources, it is only since the 1980s that these drinks can be produced in industrial quantities. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. [202] In addition, the Government of Quebec owns airports and heliports to increase the accessibility of local services to communities in the Basse-Côte-Nord and northern regions. [34] The river empties into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. [131], At 1.69 children per woman, Quebec's 2011 fertility rate is above the Canada-wide rate of 1.61,[132] and is higher than it was at the turn of the 21st century. [149] In June 2017 S&P rated Quebec as an AA- credit risk, surpassing Ontario for the first time. Quebec has produced beer since the beginning of colonization especially with the emergence of spruce beer. [45] From temperate zones to the northern territories of the Far North, the brightness varies with latitude, as well as the Northern Lights and midnight sun. [13] Even in central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. Being a modern cosmopolitan society, today, all types of music can be found in Quebec. Attention: Several regions are now orange and red on Québec’s COVID-19 alert system. A … [39] The Canadian boreal forest is the northernmost and most abundant of the three forest areas in Quebec that straddle the Canadian Shield and the upper lowlands of the province. It is conferred upon men and women born or living in Quebec (but non-Quebecers can be inducted as well) for outstanding achievements. The tundra covers more than 24% of the area of Quebec. Since the 1970s, languages other than French on commercial signs have been permitted only if French is given marked prominence. The distribution areas of the paper birch, the trembling aspen and the mountain ash cover more than half of Quebec territory.[66]. Most visible minorities in Quebec live in or near Montreal. Elle a eu cours de 1763 à 1791 et fut ensuite remplacée par les provinces du Bas-Canada et du Haut-Canada. To secure the allegiance of the approximately 90,000 French-speaking Canadians to the British crown, first Governor James Murray and later Governor Guy Carleton promoted the need for change. Sixty percent of the Quebec electorate voted against the proposition for sovereignty-association. Quebec has produced cheese for centuries. The podorythmie is a characteristic of traditional Quebec music and means giving the rhythm with the feet. Often known as Bill 101, it defined French as the only official language of Quebec in areas of provincial jurisdiction.[107]. Quebec is a province located in east-central Canada. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario. The creation of Upper and Lower Canada in 1791 allowed most Loyalists to live under British laws and institutions, while the French-speaking population of Lower Canada could maintain their familiar French civil law and the Catholic religion. [18] The province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province" ("The beautiful province"). [150], Quebec's economy has undergone tremendous changes over the last decade. English is not designated an official language by Quebec law. Lawrence Marine Park until the Île d'Orléans (French for Orleans Island), such as the blue whale, the beluga, the minke whale and the harp seal (earless seal). The Wildlife Foundation of Quebec and the Data Centre on Natural Heritage of Quebec (CDPNQ)(French acronym)[63] are the main agencies working with officers for wildlife conservation in Quebec. : Distributed this week in the province of Quebec, keep an eye out. The Canadian Shield also has a complex hydrological network of perhaps a million lakes, bogs, streams and rivers. Tatsächlich ist hier der Sankt-Lorenz-Strom nur noch 600 Meter breit und schwer schiffbar wegen seiner Untiefen. [218] The First Nations and the Inuit of Quebec also have their own traditional music. Many literary works reproduce the daily lives of the past, following the social and cultural traditions of Quebec television series reproducing the old days[240] such as the trilogy of Pierre Gauvreau (Le Temps d'une paix, Cormoran and Le Volcan tranquille), La Famille Plouffe, Les Belles Histoires des Pays-d'en-Haut, La Petite Patrie, Entre chien et loup, Les Filles de Caleb, Blanche, Au nom du père et du fils, Marguerite Volant, Nos Étés or Musée Éden, among others. Quebec, eastern province of Canada. Popular French-language contemporary writers include Louis Caron, Suzanne Jacob, Yves Beauchemin, and Gilles Archambault. The swelling numbers of English encouraged them to make greater demands for recognition with the colonial government. EMBED (for wordpress.com hosted blogs and archive.org item tags) Want more? Carnaval de Québec 4. The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited primarily by Aboriginal peoples.[12]. The situation called for a more creative approach to problem solving. This author will be part of the current of patriotic literature (also known as the "poets of the country" and literary identity) that will arise after the Patriots Rebellion of 1837–1838. The party failed to win control of Quebec's National Assembly both times – though its share of the vote increased from 23 percent to 30 percent – and Lévesque was defeated both times in the riding he contested. In 2001, 42% of international adoptions in Canada were carried out in Quebec. It was at this moment that the monks of La Trappe of Oka began to produce the famous Oka cheese. The deciduous forest of the Saint Lawrence Lowlands is mostly composed of deciduous species such as the sugar maple, the red maple, the white ash, the American beech, the butternut (white walnut), the American elm, the basswood, the bitternut hickory and the northern red oak as well as some conifers such as the eastern white pine and the northern whitecedar. [38] The combination of rich and easily arable soils and Quebec's relatively warm climate makes this valley the most prolific agricultural area of Quebec province. On this day, the song "Gens du pays" by Gilles Vigneault is often heard and commonly regarded as Quebec's unofficial anthem. [26] In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Guide du colon : province de Québec, 1880.. [Québec (Province). [140] In contrast, in the rest of Canada, in 2006 only about 10.2 percent (2,430,990) of the population had a knowledge of both of the country's official languages. [100], In the 1860s, the delegates from the colonies of British North America (Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland) met in a series of conferences to discuss self-governing status for a new confederation. [206], Quebec has been described as a potential clean energy superpower. [220] The Orchestre symphonique de Québec and the Orchestre symphonique de Montréal are respectively associated with the Opéra de Québec and the Opéra de Montreal whose performances are presented at the Grand Théâtre de Québec and at Place des Arts. [113], On October 30, 2003, the National Assembly of Quebec voted unanimously to affirm "that the people of Québec form a nation". The practice of sports and outdoor activities in Quebec was influenced largely by its geography and climate. The ecozone mixed forest covers 11.5% of the area of Quebec and is characteristic of the Laurentians, the Appalachians and the eastern lowlands forests. Kijiji: petites annonces à Québec. The Conseil des arts et des lettres du Québec (CALQ) is an initiative of the Ministry of Culture and Communications (Quebec). Geologically, the lowlands formed as a rift valley about 100 million years ago and are prone to infrequent but significant earthquakes. [39] The mixed forest is a transition zone between the Canadian boreal forest and deciduous forest. An additional 5.8 percent of the population said they had no religious affiliation (including 5.6 percent who stated that they had no religion at all).Percentages are calculated as a proportion of the total number of respondents (7,125,580)[137], The official language of Quebec is French. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay; to the north by Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay; to the east by the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the province of Newfoundland and Labrador; and to the south by the province of New Brunswick and the U.S. states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York. The population is largely French speaking, and the town is at the ideological core of French Canada. (free Quebec!) Around 1522–1523, the Italian navigator Giovanni da Verrazzano persuaded King Francis I of France to commission an expedition to find a western route to Cathay (China). [138], A considerable number of Quebec residents consider themselves to be bilingual in French and English. With a land area of 1,356,625.27 km2 (523,795.95 sq mi), it had a population density of 6.0/km2 (15.6/sq mi) in 2016. A total of three Quebecers have been in space since the creation of the CSA: Marc Garneau, Julie Payette and Guy Laliberté. This is a lower percentage than that of British Columbia, Ontario, Alberta, and Manitoba but higher than that of the other five provinces. [11] It is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole official language. After the rebellions, Lord Durham was asked to undertake a study and prepare a report on the matter and to offer a solution for the British Parliament to assess. Toutes les nouvelles de ABS/St.Jacobs ABC via JEAN-PHILIPPE LAMONTAGNE Représentant et conseiller génétique The vast majority (90.5%) of Quebec's forests are publicly owned. Émile Nelligan, a Quebec poet famous for his poem Winter evening, First influenced since the days of New France by Catholicism, with works from Frère Luc (Brother Luke) and more recently from Ozias Leduc and Guido Nincheri, art of Quebec has developed around the specific characteristics of its landscapes and cultural, historical, social and political representations.[231]. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario. With unrest growing in the colonies to the south, which would one day grow into the American Revolution, the British were worried that the French-speaking Canadians might also support the growing rebellion. [75][76][77] Champlain's Habitation de Québec, built as a permanent fur trading outpost, was where he would forge a trading, and ultimately a military alliance, with the Algonquin and Huron nations. St. Lawrence Iroquoians, a branch of the Iroquois, lived more settled live… It came at a time when no declaration of war had been issued by either country. [236] Several organizations ensure that same mission, both in the social and cultural traditions in the countryside and heritage buildings, including the Commission des biens culturels du Québec, the Quebec Heritage Fondation, the Conservation Centre of Quebec, the Centre for development of living heritage, the Quebec Council of living heri tage, the Quebec Association of heritage interpretation, etc. 1.9K likes. [96] Therefore, Governor Haldimand (at the suggestion of Carleton) drew Loyalists away from Quebec City and Montreal by offering free land on the northern shore of Lake Ontario to anyone willing to swear allegiance to George III. It has about 30 mines, 158 exploration companies and fifteen primary processing industries. [109] Polls showed that the overwhelming majority of English and immigrant Quebecers voted against, and that French Quebecers were almost equally divided, with older voters less in favour and younger voters more in favour. Because of the influence of both storm systems from the core of North America and the Atlantic Ocean, precipitation is abundant throughout the year, with most areas receiving more than 1,000 millimetres (39 in) of precipitation, including over 300 centimetres (120 in) of snow in many areas. [95], In ten years, Quebec had undergone a dramatic change. In 1837, residents of Lower Canada – led by Louis-Joseph Papineau and Robert Nelson – formed an armed resistance group to seek an end to the unilateral control of the British governors. Vous pouvez chercher par prénom ou nom de famille, par état ou province et par date de publication. [202], Concerning rail transport, Quebec has 6,678 kilometres (4,150 mi) of railways[203] integrated in the large North American network. There are also many successful plays from this literary category, such as Les Belles-sœurs and Broue (Brew). Overview of the Québec government’s monthly financial results as at August 31, 2020 . [185] Between 1991 to 2000, Quebec produced more scientific papers per 100,000 inhabitants than the United States and Germany. As part of the ongoing negotiations of their exit from the Anglo-French War, in 1632 the English king Charles agreed to return the lands in exchange for Louis XIII paying his wife's dowry. [21] After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada (present-day Quebec) and Upper Canada (present-day Ontario), with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. Province of Quebec, frz. By 1756, France and Britain were battling the Seven Years' War worldwide. What are synonyms for Province de Québec? Only groups with 1.5 percent or more of respondents are shown.[134]. The Ballets Jazz de Montreal, the Grands Ballets and La La La Human Steps are three important professional troupes of contemporary dance. Quebec Province, Canada. Ives Goddard. Many metallic minerals are exploited, the principals are gold, iron, copper and zinc. Quebec is a province placed in east-central Canada. Quebec is the only province not to have assented to the patriation of the Canadian constitution in 1982.[110]. Although primarily intended for the transport of goods through companies such as the Canadian National (CN) and the Canadian Pacific (CP), the Quebec railway network is also used by inter-city passengers via Via Rail Canada and Amtrak. At that time, French-speaking Canadians formed the vast majority of the population of the province of Quebec (more than 99%) and British immigration was not going well. [224][225] Various buildings reflect the architectural heritage that characterizes Quebec, such as religious buildings, city halls, houses of large estates, and other locations throughout the province. [106] Laporte was strangled with his own rosary beads a few days later. From La Bolduc in the 1920s–1930s to the contemporary artists, the music in Quebec has announced multiple songwriters and performers, pop singers and crooners, music groups and many more. Most of Quebec's population lives in this area of vegetation, almost entirely along the banks of the St. Lawrence. New Brunswick and Nova Scotia joined Ontario and Quebec in the new Dominion of Canada. The all time record high was 40.0 °C (104.0 °F) and the all time record low was −51.0 °C (−59.8 °F). [74] In 1608, he returned as head of an exploration party and founded Quebec City with the intention of making the area part of the French colonial empire. [154] The percentage spent on research and technology (R&D) is the highest in Canada and higher than the averages for the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the G7 countries. [114] On November 27, 2006, the House of Commons passed a symbolic motion moved by Prime Minister Stephen Harper declaring "that this House recognize that the Québécois form a nation within a united Canada. The average land wildlife includes the cougar, the coyote, the eastern wolf, the bobcat, the Arctic fox, the fox, etc. The Labrador Peninsula is covered by the Laurentian Plateau (or Canadian Shield), dotted with mountains such as Otish Mountains. Site évolutif et conçu en fonction des besoins des utilisateurs. Its relatively long growing season lasts almost 200 days and its fertile soils make it the centre of agricultural activity and therefore of urbanization of Quebec. Quebec, Fr. ABS Canada - Province de Québec. The Commission des transports du Québec works with the freight carriers and the public transport. Its major metropolis, Montreal, is … The first to write the history of Quebec, since its discovery, was the historian François-Xavier Garneau. The southern portion of the shield extends to the Laurentians, a mountain range just north of the Saint Lawrence Lowland, that attracts local and international tourists to ski hills and lakeside resorts. [28] Its topography is very different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate (latitude and altitude), and the proximity to water. [29] The most recent layers of sedimentary rock were formed as the seabed of the ancient Champlain Sea at the end of the last ice age about 14,000 years ago. At the time of first European contact and later colonization, Algonquian, Iroquois and Inuit nations controlled what is now Quebec. Among the birds commonly seen in the southern inhabited part of Quebec, there are the American robin, the house sparrow, the red-winged blackbird, the mallard, the common grackle, the blue jay, the American crow, the black-capped chickadee, some warblers and swallows, the starling and the rock pigeon, the latter two having been introduced in Quebec and are found mainly in urban areas.